South Africa is located at the southernmost region of Africa with a long coastline that is spread upto 2,500 kms alongside two oceans namely,South Atlantic and Indian Ocean.The country lies between a latitude of 22° and 35°S, and longitudes 16° and 33°E.The highest peak in South Africa is at 11,320ft at Mafadi,Drakensberg.Majority of the regions in South Africa consists mostly of plateau with an altitude between 1000m to 2,100m. The metropolitan area of greater Cape Town is situated on the cape peninsula and is also home to 3.7 million people according to the 2011 census.Though there is not much of rain here but rainfall is one of the most spectacular things that happens in South Africa as it makes the place look visually strong and artistic. One of the very fascinating things that makes South Africa even more awesome is the small subantarctic archipelago of Prince Edward Islands.Temperature here is generally a temperate climate suiting every life form in South Africa.That is one of the prime reasons why this place is rich in plant diversity.The Flowering plants that grow here are rich in number and in variety.
South Africa has some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world.There have been extensive fossils that have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province.Into the list of UNESCO World Heritage Site,this place has also been termed as Cradle of Humankind.During the era,when the European hold was at its topmost peak,the ethnic group that was dominant were the Bantu speaking people who had migrated from different places of Africa about a thousand years ago.Xhosa and Zulu were the two major historic groups.In the first couple of decades,the Zulu people had started growing in power and had started holding its dominance resulting in the expanse of their territory. The discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1884 in the interior started the Mineral Revolution and increased economic growth and immigration.The AngloZulu war is one of the most important things to have happened in the history of South Africa.After the Boer wars,an act of the British Parliament was granted ,which resulted in the creation of Union Of South Africa on 31st May 1910.It was 1948 when the National Party was elected to power.Though this party was elected to power,it further strengthened the racial segregationwhich had begun under Dutch and British Colonial Rule.This nationalist government had started making things difficult for the people by classifying them into various races and creating rules and limitations for each of the races. The Freedom Charter which was adopted in 1955 stood up to remove the discrimination that had been going on.Things changed when Nelson Mandela was elected as the first black president of South Africa in 1992 and put every effort to make South Africa a peaceful nation.
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