History suggests that Bali was first inhibited by the Austronesian people who had resemblance with people from the Philippines and South China. These people introduced technologies of rice cultivation to Bali. The people of Bali started developing tools from stone and bronze. They also made weapons from these elements. In the 800 CE, evidence supports the growth of Hinduism and Buddhism in Bali. Buddhist inscriptions from this time have been found in Bali. Many scriptures were written in Sanskrit, Nagari and Balinese script. The development of the Hindu and Javanese culture was supported with the inter-marriages. During the first century, the island had been named “Balidwipa” which meant the island of Bali. Meanwhile, intensive cultivation of rice had started in Bali. In the 1500s, the Portuguese entered the island with a view of expanding trade. The Portuguese had traded bi-annually from Bali in their vessels. In 1585, their ship ran aground near the Bukit Peninsula. There were only five survivors and they joined hands with the then king. Years after this, the Dutch entered Bali. In the year, 1602 the Dutch East India Company was established in Bali. As time passed by, the Dutch East Indies took a stand in the political and economical matters of Bali. During this time, it is said that the islands of Bali had to face some exploitation from the Dutch.
In 1860, Alfred Russel Wallace, came to Bali. He was a naturalist and developed the Wallace theory here in Bali. This theory helped Bali to stretch a line to differentiate the line of fauna in the strait between Bali and Lombok. This boundary differentiated between the Australian and the Asiatic species.
In the 1900s, there were many conflicts between the Dutch and the Balinese. Defensive assaults followed and the many Balinese soldiers died. Eventually, the Dutch took over and started ruling Bali. Later, many tourists, artist, musicians came to visit Bali and added to the aesthetics of the land.
During the Second World War, the Japanese army occupied Bali to set airfields here. This created instability in the Dutch rule. This was the time when a Balinese military officer, GustiNgurah Rai decided to act up and initiated the making of a “Freedom Army”. The Balinese had to face atrocities by the Japanese too. After the Japanese surrendered, the Dutch returned to Bali. This made the Balinese rebel and thus on 20th November 1946 came the battle of Marga. It did not end well in the favor of Bali. Later on 29th December 1949, Netherlands decided to leave Bali and so Bali became a part of the “Republic of Indonesia”.
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