Geography of Jammu Kashmir

Geography of Jammu Kashmir


  • Jammu and Kashmir has many valleys to name it as Kashmir valley, Tawi valley, Sind Valley, Chenab valley, Lidder Valley, and Punch Valley. Among this entire valley, the Kashmir valley is considered to be the most important as it is 100km wide and approx 15,520km2 of area.

    The Jhelum which is also known as Vyeth in kashmiri is the major watercourse of the Kashmir valley. It comes from Verinag called as a beautiful spring and is located at the base of the Pir Panjal Mountain.

    The Jhelum flows to Khanabal of approx 26 Kms distance. Tributaries join the Jhelum and are routed between Khanabal and WullarLake with entirety valley length is 177 kms. It flows in loops through the valley till it enters the Wullar; it flows out from its other side to Baramulla and later entering to the Pakistan boundary. This part is not navigable, as the river makes a very deep bed and acquires a swift flow.

    Srinagar town is situated on the sides of river Jhelum, which increases its beauty and also an attraction for the tourists, who enjoy the experience of house-boats staying permanently in water on the banks of the river.

  • Tributaries of the river Jhelum

    1. The Vishav is fed by the Kaunsarnag Lake which is about 3 Kms long, which links the Jhelum River at Bijbehara. Kounsarnag is at a height of about 4000 metres above sea level in the Panjal Mountains to the south of Kashmir, where lake with ice can be found during summers.

    2. Next comes the Romushi  to the list of tributary of the Jhelum at 75o East longitude, which flows between Kharmarg and Pakharpur and than routes to north-east.

    3. The Dudhganga is one more tributary of the Jhelum that runs from Ludurmarg and rises in the middle Pir Panjal next to Tata Kuti Mountain.  The two mountains; Sangesafed and the Yachera,that forms this river and flows through Batmalu Swamp near Srinagar.

    4. The Sukhang is one of the important tributary, which rises near Gulmarg and covers a large area.

    5. The Lidar is one of the largest tributaries of the Jhelum. It flows in a fast fine watercourse from Sheeshnag lake to the east of Pahalgam. It routes through few villages of which Mattan (Martand) is much known. The Kolahai and Sheeshnag meets in the Lidar at Pahalgam and forms a river.

    6. The Ferozpore Nullah is an important river in the western mountains of Baramulla-Gulmarg area, collecting water from various mountain streams, springs and small lakes, this region is mostly covered with snow during summers.

    7. The Flood Spill Channel, the construction was done in 1904 with a main reason to reduce the damage on the Jhelum at the Srinagar city. It diverts the major flow in the river and helps the Jhelum River to control its water level while passing through Srinagar. During floods, the Jhelum rises and the Channel protects the city from getting flooded.


Major Lakes

1. The Wullar Lake in Kashmir is the biggest fresh water lake, which is almost 16 kms in length and 10 Kms broad with many shores. This lake falls from Bandipore to Sopore with approx duration of 70kms from Srinagar.  From the south-east the river Jhelum penetrates and leaves it from the west. Storms occur every day in the afternoon.

2. The Dal Lake is a one of the beautiful lake near to Srinagar, with distance of 8 Kms in length and 6.4 Kms broad. It is the flood-lung of the Jhelum. The famous Mughal gardens are situated around it.

3. The Anchar Lake is a muddy area where the Sind Nullah enters into this lake from one side and flows out from the other. It is about 8 Kms long and 3 Kms wide.  The famous township called Gandarbal on the north-west bank.

4. The Mansbal Lake is at a distance of 29 Kms from Srinagar and is located at Safapore, it is 5 Kms long, which connects with the Jhelum by a channel near Sumbal. Mughal Emperors have built a summer palace on its bank.

5. The Harvan Lake is located at duration of 21 Kms from Srinagar. It is 278 meters in length and 137 meters broad and 18 metres depth.  Water is supplied through this lake to the entire Srinagar city.

6. The Hokarsar Lake is located on Baramulla road near 13 Kms from Srinagar. It is about 5 Kms in lenght. Plenty of willow trees are planted around its banks.

7. The Konsarnag or Vishno Pad Lake is situated in the Pir Panjal at a height of 4000 meters above sea level towards the southern part of Shopian, with approx 35 kms far.

8. The Gangabal Lake is located at an altitude of 3570 meters the peak of Harmukh mountain. It is considered as a sacred lake.

9. The Sheshnag Lake is situated near Vavjan, reroute to Shri Amarnath cave for about 28 Kms from Pahalgam.

10. The Neelang Lake is a very beautiful lake surrounded by dense forest is located in Tehsil Badgam for about 10 Kms from Nagam.

11.  Two more lakes called Tarsar and Marsar that fall on the northern grade of the Harmukh Mountain. Marsar Lake is the source of the channel Sharab Kohl providing water to the fountains at the gardens of the Mughals. 

12. Sokh and Dokh are the two ice-covered lakes located at Harmukh Mountain. It is known as  the tears of Parvati dropping down; one a warm tear drop indicating happiness and other a cold one showing grief.


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