History and Culture of Jammu Kashmir

History and Culture of Jammu Kashmir

History and Culture

Kashmir Sultanate (From 1346 to 1586)

  • During the 14th century, Islam was declared as the leading religion in Kashmir. The Sultans between 1354 to 1470 were liberal of other religions, except Sultan Sikandar (1389–1413). Sultan Sikandar forced taxes on non–Muslims, enforced conversions to Islam, and brought the title But–Shikan for demolishing the idols. 
  • Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin(1420–1470 CE)  asked artists and craftsmen from Central Asia and other exterior regions to educate the Kashmiri artists.

The Mughals (1589-1857)

  • Kashmir did not follow Mughal rule till the control of Mughal king Akbar who came to the valley during 1589.  Many gardens, mosques, and palaces were constructed for the successful Mughal emperors as a celebration.
  • During 1658, religious narrow-mindedness and prejudiced taxation reappeared by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb lead the throne.  Later after his death the control the Mughal Empire was fallen off
  • During 1700, a servant of a rich Kashmir merchant brought Mo-i Muqqadas (the hair of the Prophet) remains of Muhammad. The remains were based in the Hazratbal Shrine on the side of Dal Lake.

          1947 at time of independent

  • During 1925, Hari Singh the grandson of Ranbir Singh was given the throne of Kashmir and was the supremacy ruler in 1947 at the termination of British rule and the consequent partition of the British Indian Empire to the newly independent Union of India and the authority of Pakistan.
  • In August, Maharaja's forces fired protesting in favour of Kashmir uniting to Pakistan, they burned entire villages and slaughter innocent crowd.
  • On October 24th, the Poonch force confirmed an independent government of "Azad" Kashmir. Rulers of Princely States were encouraged to accede their States to either authority of India or Pakistan. Considering few factors such as physical contiguity and the wishes of their people.
  • In 1947, the Maharaja signed a "standstill" agreement with Pakistan, which ensured continuity of trade, travel, communication, and similar services between the two. Such an agreement was pending with India.



Jammu & Kashmir state is always been consisted of four political regions. As ladakh towards the east bordering China, Jammu to the south bordering few states like Punjab, Himanchal Pradesh and Pakistan too. The well known Kashmir valley on the west which borders the Kashmir under Pakistan admisnistration. The Baltistan region to the North bordering Xinjiang and Gilgit Baltistan.

Baltistan and a region of Kashmir are under the power of Pakistan Government. Aksai Chin which was claimed by Indian Government as a part of Ladakh, is under the control of The Government of China.  Line of Control (LOC) is maintained to divide the regions controlled by Pakistan and Indian.

Major political parties comprise of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (NC), the Indian National Congress (Congress), Bharatiya Janata Party and the Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party (PDP). At present, PDP with 28 seats is the 1st largest and Bharatiya Janata Party  BJP with 25 seats is the second largest party in 2014 election in the 87-member house.



The Economy of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is largely dependent on agriculture and associated activities. The largest Kashmir valley is famous for its sericulture and cold-water fisheries. Kashmir Wood is used to make supreme quality cricket bats, well known as Kashmir Willow. Not to forget saffron is very famous and found to be of very good quality which helps the state with a good amount of foreign exchange. Other agricultural exports from Jammu and Kashmir that includes in huge quantity like apples,  cherries, oranges, peaches, pears, walnut, sorghum, vegetables, and wheat, barley, corn, millet , rice and many more, while manufactured exports include handicrafts, rugs, and shawls which is beautiful and unique.

High grade deposits of Sapphire are found in the Doda district. However, Jammu is still at a developing stage for manufacturing and service.  At this stage many companies of consumer products have opened manufacturing units in this region. The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) have acknowledged numerous industrial sectors that can invite investment to the state, and actually with the help of the unions and the state government setting up few industrial parks and unique economic zones. During the financial year 2005–06, exporting business from the state grew upto INR11.5 billion (US$180 million). However, industrial development faces major limitation like great mountainous landscape and power shortage frequently.



·      The famous singer and an actor Kl Saigal.

·      Om Prakash the Character actor

·      To name a few actors like Sanjay Suri, Anupam Kher, Kiran Kumar and many more to our Bollywood Industry.

·      Vidhu Vinod Chopra the well known filmmaker of Bollywood Industry.

·      Padma Sachdev the famed poet, novelist.


  • Music & Dance

The local people of Kashmir have a variety of musical knowledge in composition and its unique and melodious. 

  • Chakri

In Jammu & Kashmir, Chakri is one of the mainly admired traditional music that is played, it is played with musical instruments like the harmonium, the sarangi the rubab, the chimta, the geger and the nout. Both the Hindus and the Muslims perform in folk and religious places. Chakri is also used for story telling like fairy tales or famous love stories such as Yousuf-ZulaikhaLaila-Majnun, and many more to name. Chakri ends with the dance form called the rouf, even though being a dance form, few ending notes of Chakri that are played in a different way. It is a very significant part of the Henna Night during weddings.

  • Sufiana Kalam (Kashmiri classical)

The classical music of Kashmir is known as Sufiana Kalam, which uses its own ragas also known as maqam, and is goes along with many other musical instruments. Sufiana Kalam is always so famed in Kashmir since inwarding from Iran during the 15th century and has been the music of choice for Kashmiri Sufi mystics. 

  • Ladakh region

The unique thing about a Ladakh marriage is the performance of lengthy narratives performed singers in unusual costumes. Few well known dances in Ladakh which has its own meaning to it that includes the Khatok Chenmo that is lead by an upper-class family member only, the one known as Kompa Tsum-tsak  which means three succeeding steps, Jabro  is the dance steps that comes from western Ladakh, Chaams the holy dance by lamas, Chabs-Skyan Tses  is the dance performed by carrying a pot on head, Raldi Tses is the swordsmanship dance .

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