Oliver Cromwell : The Lord Defender Of England

Oliver Cromwell was born on 25th April 1599 in the upper middle class family in Huntingdon. He won the first English civil war and was the important personality in the execution of Charles1. He was one of the most controversial personalities in the history of the British Isles, regarded as a regicidal autocrat and a military dictator by some historians, but a hero of liberty by others. After the death of Charles I in 1649, he was one of the signatories as a member of the Rump Parliament and set to change the lawful framework to a limited extent through the foundation of the Blue Laws against cursing, drunkenness and adultery. On 20th April 1653 he abandoned the Rump Parliament by setting up a temporary recommended assembly called the Barebones Parliament. Later, he became the Lord Defender of the Commonwealth of Scotland, Ireland and England. An extremely religious person, he profoundly thought that God was helping in his conquests.

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He sold most of his Huntingdon properties and moved to farmstead in Cambridge. He established the important links with leading families in Essex and London. In 1628 he was an elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon and Cambridge in the 1640(Short Parliament) and 1640-49(Long Parliament). He also took a part into the English Civil War on the side of the “Roundheads” or Parliamentarians. Cromwell was a deputy under the command of Thomas Fairfax, they started New Model Army which was quickly routed the main Royalist force marking the beginning of remarkable victories that within a year forced Charles I to surrender. After this in 16th December 1653, he requested by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. He was backed by the army, sent home MP’s and became the effective leader of England from 1653 to 1658. He divided England into eleven divisions, each one was governed by a major general who was trusted by him. He played a standout part in the victory over the royalist forces. He also influenced the short-lived Commonwealth of England.

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In his leadership he accomplished an aggressive and effective foreign policy. He went to Sussex College in Cambridge for his study and then a college with a strong Puritan ethos. He left his college without taking any degree or certification because of the sudden death of his father. All the responsibilities of his widowed mother and seven unmarried sisters came on his shoulders. In 1658 he died because of malaria and kidney stone, which was a natural death and buried in Westminster Abbey. After the Royalists came back to control in 1660, they had his dead body dug up, suspended by chains, and beheaded. In Britain in a 2002 BBC poll, Cromwell was chosen as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time. However, his actions against Catholics in Ireland and Scotland have been marked as massacre and his record is severely denounced.

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Legalising Drugs Not Moralising

It is known all through the world that in Amsterdam you may enter a cafe and easily purchase drugs. And you don’t believe that you can find a list of drugs in the menu and also have specials for the day. Dutch drug strategy is remarkable in the entire world. It is coordinated by a thought that each person may choose of its own well being. Another thought which manages Dutch laws, is a conviction that concealing social negative phenomena does not make them to vanish, actually aggravates them. Generating, exchanging and stocking drugs remain a criminal offense, as in the other nation. They have separated drugs into two gatherings which are soft drugs and hard drugs. Hard drugs as cocaine, morphine and heroin are prohibited in the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, there are strict laws about the amounts of drugs deal and utilization. Today, in more than sixty cities of Dutch, hundreds of program for drugs awareness and testing are operating on the daily basis which is effectively influencing the life of country.

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De Walletjes, the biggest and best-known red light district in Amsterdam, also a destination for worldwide tourism. During the Napoleonic period around 18th Century, the French soldier were the main customers in De Wallen. There was a red card given to these girls, which was a permit to work. Instead of being totally open today, they were stand behind the close curtain in 1935. Seventy Five percent of Amsterdam prostitute will be from the Africa, Europe and Asia. From 2013, the legal age of a prostitute in the Netherlands was now 21 years, which was 18 years. Health and social services are also provided to prostitute, which are required to undergo a regular checkup under the government money. The government authority will regularly visit to these places and if they found any criminal act or underage girls, they straight away shut down that place.

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Source : Hash Marihuana & Hemp Museum |

Pink point is an Amsterdam’s authority gay and lesbian data stand, arranged by the homomonument on the westermarkt. Today, Amsterdam keeps on prevailing as one of the world’s top destination for gay and lesbian travelers. Held yearly in late July, Amsterdam gay pride is a standout amongst the most famous pride festivals around the globe. As yet developing, the waterway parade pulls around 500,000 guests every year, making it one of the greatest yearly occasions to be facilitated in the city. In 2008, Amsterdam gay pride was broadcasted best gay pride of Europe and won the appreciated honor as the most affable occasion in Amsterdam. In 2009, it was one of the five occasions named for best gay occasion on the planet. In 2010, it won an honor in the classification of ‘best city advancement occasion’ of the Netherlands.

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The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo Da Vinci was an architect, painter, engineer, writer, geologist, mathematician, inventor and a great knowledge about all the scientific things. He was born on 15 April 1452 in Tuscany (Italy), near the small town of Vinci. His parents were not married and his mother wed with the other men while he was very young and began a new family. He was trained to the sculptor and painter Andrea del Verrocchio in Florence and in 1478 he was became an independent master. In about 1483, he migrate to Milan for work under the ruling Sforza family as an engineer, architect, sculptor and painter. In Milan from 1495 to 1497, he made a mural of ‘The Last Supper‘ in the refectory of the Monastery Santa Maria delle GrazieDa. The scene in the picture depicts the disciples feeling of anxiety and surprise upon hearing the news.

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Leonardo Da Vinci was in Milan until the city was captured by the French in 1499 and the Sforza family forced to move. He visited Venice before returning to Florence. During his time in Florence, he did some portraits, but the only one that left is the famous ‘Mona Lisa’ (1503-1506). The Mona Lisa painting is all about that faint, mysterious smile. The theories persists that the women in the painting is Lisa Gherardini, a women lived in Florence. In 1506, Vinci returns back to Milan, stay until 1513. In 1517, French king Francis I, invited Leonardo so he moved to the Château of Cloux, near Amboise in France. The popularity of Da Vinci’s existing paintings had increased so much that he has been regarded primarily as a great artist. The thousands of pages of his notebooks reveal the most eclectic and brilliance of his mind. Because of the diverse interest in the different field, he failed to complete most of his significant number of projects and paintings. At the age of sixty seven, he was died at Clos-Luce and buried in palace church of Saint Florentin.

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Today, he was famous for his two paintings, which were admired by whole world that is The Last Supper and Mona Lisa. The intelligence and imagination allowed him to create the great invention, particularly on the paper. He was one of the great artists of that period still his contemporaries were not totally appreciate his work. Yet his actual virtuoso was not as a researcher or a craftsman, however as a mix of the two: a ‘craftsman engineer’. His canvas was logical, in view of the workings of the human body, science of light and shade. His science work was communicated through workmanship and paintings show what he implied to the world.

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Versailles Palace : A French Royal Residence

A former French royal residence and center of government, the Versailles Palace, is currently a national landmark. It is situated 16 km to southwest of Paris, in the city of Versailles, northern France. Versailles was one of the magnificent theaters of European absolutism. Built from 1631 to 1634, the original residence was primarily a hunting lodge and personal retreat for Louis XIII (reigned 1610–43) and his family. Under the leadership of Louis XIV (1643–1715), it was converted into an exclusive and high-priced complex encompassed by stylized English and French gardens. Artist Andre Le Notre created uniform French gardens that incorporate fountains with sensational still water, exhibiting the ability of humanity. By the twentieth century, it was sometimes utilized for entire congresses of the French parliament or as lodging for heads of state. The essential utility of the royal residence lay in tourism.

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The most celebrated rooms in the royal residence are the Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors; 1678–89) and alternate Grand Apartments (State Rooms). The Versailles Palace is portrayed by 17 wide arcade mirrors and windows. Glass ceiling fixtures dangle from its painted roof and plated statues. The lobby is flanked on the closures by striking Salon de la Paix (Salon of Peace) and Salon de la Guerre (Salon of War). In 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was marked by the Allies and Germany in the Galerie des Glaces. Some of the other destinations are classified as the Grand Trianon (1678–88). In the delayed eighteenth centuries, Petit Trianon, which were manufactured as personal habitations with the imperial household and amazing guests. The Museum of French History, established in 1837 under the leadership of Louis-Philippe, was blessed to all the glories of France. In the castle, the library and the salon des jeux of the Petit apartment are among the finest samples of the Louis XVI.

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UNESCO was assigned the castle and its gardens a World Heritage site in 1979. After a staggering winter storm in 1989, which devastated more than 1,000 trees on the castle grounds, the French government launched a far reaching task of repair and remodel. On Oct 1789, the illustrious family needed to clear the Versailles Palace and moved to Paris on the requests of the national. An extreme windstorm in 1999 brought on the loss of practically 10,000 trees, including a few planted by Marie Antoinette and Napoleon Bonaparte. The estate was additionally harmed. In the late 1990’s practically nine million individuals went by the castle every year.

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Windmills In Netherlands

The Netherlands is so nearly connected with windmills, that we can say they are inseparable with each other. These two words wind and water have an exceptionally unique interest for the genuine conceived Dutchman. The first windmill was invented in ancient past, but it was the Dutch who really hit it off with the wooden giant. Wind vitality has been utilized among the different parts of Holland since the commencement of the nation. The generation of sheets, paint, oil, paper, bread and mustard are relied on upon windmills and wind. Furthermore, windmills were utilized to pump the water out of lakes to keep recovered area. The amazing mills of Schiedam are among the five biggest windmills on the planet. These massive windmills are more than 40 meters high, assumed an essential part in the generation of Jenever (tradition liquor of Netherlands).

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Long time ago, the Dutch constructed windmills. The reality is that the windmills became the symbol for Dutch and helped a lot in developing the nation. At that time the plants were produced corn processing, area seepage, saw processing, and indeed all way of mechanical purposes. The most crucial was pumping water out of the swamps and merge into the streams of the embankments so that the area could be cultivated.

Why so many windmills in Netherlands?

The Netherlands is a small nation, and after the sixteenth century numerous Dutch individuals have been living at ashore that is beneath the ocean level. These territories and area are called polders. Following the end goal to make conceivable windmills, they were utilized to deplete the polders and keep them dry. Around 150 years ago, there were around 10,000 windmills in the Netherlands. Now, most of them have been supplanted by more intense depleting machines. There are around 1,000 old windmills left today, and some are still used to pump water out of the dirt. The vast majority of them are currently ensured noteworthy landmarks that are open for individuals to visit.

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The sorts of windmills you are more inclined to see in the Netherlands today are wind turbines. These windmills are also used as Renewable Energy Generators. Present day, windmills are utilized to produce power in a manner that doesn’t harm the earth. They may not be as pretty as the old windmills, yet the Dutch have understood that they are an extraordinary distinct option for coal and gas force stations to prevent from dirty nature. There are an exceptionally satisfying number of windmills remaining in the Netherlands. The number is around 1150 and ascending, in that the Dutch just finishes workable plants. In the previous 10 years, numerous broad reconstructs have jumped out for increasing these numbers. The Dutch Administration has been thinking to build 6,000 MW of offshore wind power in next 10 years, which will have a significant impact on the Dutch electricity grid. With over a thousand windmills all throughout the Netherlands, it is possible that you’ll organize a tour to see these outstanding windmills.

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The Story of Tulip Garden

In the Tenth Century, Cultivation of tulips began in Persia. During Ottoman Empire, various tulips were originally cultivated. They were imported into Holland in the sixteenth century and till now Holland is known for its tulips. They were totally different from every other flower which was popular at that time in Europe.

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Tulip mania:

Tulip mania also called tulip fever. Tulip mania was a period in the Dutch Golden Age when contract prices for bulbs of the recently introduced tulip reached extraordinarily high. In March 1637, tulips bulb sold more than ten times the yearly salary of talented skilled workers. Amsterdam traders were at the center of the lucrative East Indies exchange where one voyage could return benefits of 400 Percentage. Therefore, tulips quickly turned into a desired luxury item and a bounty of mixtures took after. The enthusiasm for particularly shaded collections of tulips soon surpassed the supply and expenses for individual globules began to rise in northern Europe. During 1610, a singular globule of another mixture was introduced as gift for a woman, and a flourishing refinery in France was exchanged for tulip brasserie. Holland’s tulip trade had been bound to master makers and experts before 1633, yet the reliably increasing expenses tempt various typical common laborers and poor families to estimate in the tulip market. Homes, spaces, and organizations were sold so that globules could be bought at resale at higher expenses. Everyone felt that the demand of tulips would never drops. Individuals were interesting in bulbs with an intention to resell them at a higher prices. In any case, such a scheme couldn’t last unless somebody was eventually eager to pay such high costs and take ownership of the bulbs.

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The song “dekha ek khwab” from silsila movie was shot in Keukenhof tulip gardens in Netherland. Keukenhof is the must place to visit. The exact meaning of the word keukenhof is kitchen garden. As the name recommends, it is a standout amongst the other amazing gardens of Europe making it popular destination for travelers. Despite showcasing of horde of blooms extending from hyacinths to daffodils and lilies, its principle attractions are tulip found in distinctive hues and different colors. This greenery enclosure has heaps of engaging parks, wellsprings, rich green scenes and a lake inside. Not only this, if you love biking, one can lease a bicycle and ride it along the 15 km cycle track manufactured inside and outside the patio nursery to appreciate the peaceful and serene air. Keukenhof has just about 100 illustrious suppliers. These are the exhibitors who supply their absolute best scope of spring blooming bulbs for presentation in the park. The greenery and the garden designer makes an uncommon outline for each exhibitors, counseling with them to figure out the hues, flowering times and statures of their bulbs.

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Anne Frank : The Diary of a Young Girl

“Anne” Marie Frank was a standout amongst the most talked Jewish casualties of the Holocaust. The Franks were a typical upper middle-class German – Jewish family living in a quiet and diverse community near the outskirts of Frankfurt. Anne Frank was born on 12 June 1929 in the city of Frankfurt, Weimar Germany and lived major part of her life in or closed to Amsterdam, Netherlands. Anne Frank also had a sister named Margot who was three years elder than her. Escaping Nazi abuse of Jews, the family renounced contact with the outside world for a long time. During this hard time, she wrote a diary about her experiences, encounters and wishes. Her wartime journal with the title “The Diary of a Young Girl” had been the premise for a few plays and movies. She gained universal popularity after her diary was published.

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Her Struggle :

At the time of Holocaust, numerous guiltless individuals were tortured and murdered. With a specific end goal to survive, numerous individuals were compelled to escape and choose total isolation. In The Diary of Anne Frank, she discusses the numerous repulsion of the Holocaust. She particularly concentrates on indicating how she, as a thirteen year old young lady, endured the daily battles of imprisonment. Along the course of the journal, Anne Frank opposes hunger, weariness, repression, and endless individual clashes. In 1933, Anne Frank moved with her family from Germany to Amsterdam, at the same time Nazis took control over Germany. The Jewish did not have liberty to go to all the places, still Anne and Margot attended a Jewish school. Otto, frank’s father, lost his business and by May 1940, they were caught in Amsterdam by the Germans. The next day, Anne and her family went into hiding where they had to stay silent and despite good or bad times, spend most of their time together.

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Her Diary:

Anne was expecting that her journal should be distributed after World War 2. Otto Frank, the person who kept safe out of all Jewish those were sent to death camp. He came back to Amsterdam after the war to find the Anne’s journal which was safe. Anne Frank described many amazing events of that period in her diary. She had an extraordinary gift as a storyteller that made her diary universally popular. Despite the terrible circumstances she faced during the time of writing the diary, still the story was all about love, faith and hope. For the first time, it was translated in English from Dutch and distributed in 1952 with a title “The Diary of a Young Girl”. Otto Frank answered to many great letters from individuals who have perused his girl’s journal. He spent whatever was left of his life, working for human rights and admiration.

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The English Channel : Europe Engineering Marvel

The English Channel simply known as the Channel, is a bay of the Atlantic Ocean that separates northern France from Southern England. It is about 348 Miles long and differs in width from 149 Miles at its widest to 20 Miles in the Strait of Dover. Today, it is a standout among the most requesting and busiest transportation passage on the planet. It is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe around the mainland rack of Europe, covering a zone of around 29000 square Miles. It is a minimal shallow with an average depth decreases from 400 to 150 feet between the Calais and Dover. The Channel Tunnel is 31 Miles rail tunnel underneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover that joins France with England. Despite of the fact that the English Channel is a highlight of outstanding logical investment and tidal developments, its location has issued extreme significance over hundreds of years, as a route and a boundary. It is also a barrier to the people of Britain and the development of current Europe.

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The English Channel is the aftereffect of a structural down collapsing dating from around 40 million years back. As the last Ice Age worsened around a 10,000 years back, new water bodies were made. The English Channel and Irish Sea would at last pick up from this activity. The English Channel has been shaped by the effect upon its rock strata of many forces such as weathering, erosion, sea-level changes, and contemporary erosion. The English Channel was a safeguard to Ireland and Britain from foreign raiders, like the German Force at the period of World War II. The English Channel is an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, and it sets apart the island of Britain from northern France and connects the North Sea. The Roman Legions traveled across the threatening English Channel in the year 43 AD.


Brighton and Deauville, the coastal resorts of the Channel, started an age of aristocratic tourism during the beginning of 19th century, which evolved into the seaside tourism that has created resorts around the world. Short trips beyond the Channel for leisure purpose are frequently mentioned to as Channel Hopping.

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Interesting Facts:

  • On 6th May 1994 the Channel Tunnel was formally opened.
  • It comprises of three tunnels. Two of the running tunnels carry the trains and a middle tunnel is used as a secondary. The diameter of the ‘running tunnels’ is of 24-feet which is almost equal to three story building.
  • The northern running tunnel transports passengers are from England to France and the southern passengers from France to England.
  • To travel the Channel Tunnel , it takes 35 minutes. Depending upon which hour of the day and the dimensions of your vehicle, the tickets are priced. As   of 2010, prices for a normal car ranged from approx $78 to $120.
  • The Channel Tunnel is 50.45 km long, with 39 km situated below water. There are three main tunnels that travel between Great Britain and France, including many small tunnels.
  • The Channel Tunnel project was initially estimated around $3.6 billion, however at the time of completion the cost went over $15 billion.
  • More worried of both invasions and of rabies, the Britain had never thought that thousands of illegal immigrants would make use of the Channel Tunnel to set foot onto the United Kingdom. A lot of other security devices have had to be fixed to try to discourage and stop this large incursion of illicit immigrants.

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Concentration Camp :The Mankind Greatest Horror

The term concentration camp means a camp in which people were detained or confined under bad conditions without any legal terms of imprisonment. Sometimes, these camps were also called internment camp, where large number of people were sent to prison without any trial. The first concentration camp in Germany was established soon after Hitler’s appointment as chancellor in January 1933. From 1933 to 1945 in Germany, concentration camps were an important feature to keep detainees of war, gay people, Jews and different Germans who revolted Hitler in the World War 2. The first concentration camp of United States was created in 1838. Concentration camps had been used by the United States against Native Americans and by the British in the Second Boer War.The first concentration camps in Germany was established by Hitler & appointed as chancellor in January 1933.

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Concentration Camps in Poland

 Auschwitz Concentration Camp (1940-1945):

Auschwitz Concentration Camp was built by the Nazis in Poland. Auschwitz was one of the biggest and modernized concentration camps, which was famous for mass killing center  ever created. It was Auschwitz which became a popular symbol of death in those time by killing 1.1 million people, mainly Jews. On April 27, 1940, Heinrich Himmler ordered to build a new camp near Oswiecim, Poland (about 37 miles west of Krakow). By the time of freedom, Auschwitz had grown by including three large camps and 45 sub-camps in nearby area. At the entrance of Auschwitz, there was famous sign that stated “Arbeit Macht Frei”. Auschwitz II was also created in early of 1942. Birkenau was built 1.9 miles far away from Auschwitz I and was the real killing center of the Auschwitz death camp. In Birkenau, the dead selections were carried out on the line near the stylish and invisible gas chambers. Birkenau, much big comparing to Auschwitz, where the most prisoners were being kept including the areas for women and Gypsies. Auschwitz III was built last as “housing” for the forced laborers at the Buna synthetic rubber factory in Monowitz. There were also 45 other sub-camps where prisoners were kept for forced labor. The list of others Camps were Belzec, Chelmno ,Gross Rosen, Majdanek, Plaszow, Sobibor, Treblinka.

Concentration camp in Austria:

1) Accumulatoren – Fabrik AFA
2) Ebensee Concentration Camp
3) KZ-Nebenlager Bretstein
4) Mauthausen-Gusen Concentration Camp
5) Steyr- Munichholz Subcamp

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Interesting Facts:

• These camps were also called extermination camps and mostly situated on outskirts of Germany like Poland, Austria.
• These camps were used by German officers to kill large number of Jews and prisoners basically to clean the earth from the Jewish population. Mass killing was done without any trial or any judiciary procedure.
• Some of these camps had gas chambers in which there would be water shower that would let out gas for mass murder and extermination. Then these bodies were thrown into furnaces.
• After the end of the World War 2 many such camps were discovered by Soviet Army, British forces and American soldiers. The inhuman treatment and atrocities was done in these camps.
• Most of these were burned down by the German army but few survived and still exists as museum to remind us of those times. There were 1200 such camps as officially announced but the unofficial figure was 15000 such camps existed during those times.
• Starvation, disease, prisoners were made to work in nearby factories. Women were raped till death, there were heaps of dead bodies lying unattended.
• A total of 60 million people were believed to have died in World War 2. That was 2.5% of the population, out of it an estimated 6 million Jewish died due to the holocaust or the anti semitic wave of Hitler. This figure is equivalent to the population of Ahmedabad city.

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Charlemagne :The First Ruler Of United Europe

European history is having many interesting facts. Roman Empire was attacked by Gauls, the barbarian tribes and always fought against them. Franks and Gauls independently established themselves from Rome but still very friendly to the Roman Empire. The Rome became weaker because of the continuous attacking by Muslims from south and Tribes from north. Charlemagne crowned and title as holy roman emperor by Pope on Christmas day, 800. Charlemagne was famous as Charles the great or Charles 1. He was a king of the franks who united most of Western Europe during the middle age and formed the foundations of modern France and Germany. He was born on 2 April 742 in Liege (old name) in present Belgium. He had 18 children with multiple wives and mistresses. He always encouraged them for their education and loved his daughters so much that he didn’t permitted them to marry up till he was alive. There were many hobbies of Charlemagne including hunting, horseback riding and swimming etc. He was died on 28 January 814 in Aachen (old name) in present Germany.

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The Emperor Charlemagne ruled the Frankish kingdom from 9 October 768 to 28 January 814.In 768, after the sudden death of his father Pepin, he became the co-ruler with his younger brother Carloman l till 771. He had a strained relationship with his younger brother, who was also died in 771 and became the solo king of franks who ruled over Belgium, France, Netherland and West Germany. In his leadership he kept German people in one kingdom and converts them into Christianity and later he conquered Northern Italy, Austria, Hungary, Bavaria. He spent the majority of his reign involved in military campaigns to carry out this mission. In 774 he became the king of Italy and famous as roman emperor in Western Europe. After that in 782, he forced Germanic worshippers tribe known as Saxons to convert in Christianity and declared that anyone who didn’t get baptized or follow other Christian tradition be put to death, which was the reason of his ruthlessness. Charlemagne gave land and money to Christian church and protects pope. Because of his inclination towards Christianity he got the title of holy Roman Emperor by Pope LEO lll on December 25, 800 at Peter’s Basilica in Rome. After 13 years ruled as an emperor, he died in 814.

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As an Emperor, Charlemagne proved himself a talented diplomat and a great leader for controlling that vast area and he was famous for many other important works. He keeps Germanic people in one kingdom and converted his subject to Christianity and expanded his kingdom. In middle age France and Germany modernize by him and he was the only survival of Christianity in west Europe. He was the first emperor who promoted education not for his children but for everyone and encouraged the Carolingian Renaissance which was a period of renewed value of scholarship and culture. He also started a standardized form of writing that later became a model for modern European alphabets.

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